Tashkent - Kukeldash Madrasah
Kukeldash Madrasah was built in the 16th century, in the period of the reign of the Uzbek rulers of Tashkent - Barak- Khan and Dervish-Khan. The vizier of Tashkent khans (1551-1575), nicknamed Kukeldash ("foster brother of Khan") is considered to be the madrasah builder. Preserved vakuf letter of Dervish-Khan (1569-1570) leaves a caravansarai in favor of the madrasah that indicates the existence of the finished building at that time.
The madrasah repeatedly fell into disrepair. According to the Tashkent merchant Nur-Muhammad, whose story was recorded in 1795 by the Orenburg expedition, the madrasah in the late 18th century was used as a caravanserai. Apparently, the collapse of the crowns of the towers - guldasta also dates back to that period. Existing until 1800 the blue domes above the mosque and darskhona, and also the second floor of khujras were dismantled to brick in 1830-1831 during the reign of the Tashkent ruler Bekler-bek. After that, there was the repair by Tashkent masters who left their names in the inscriptions on majolica tiles above the entrance doors. The madrasah was used by Kokand khans as a fortress (in 1860 the Tashkent rebels were taking cannon fire from the fortress), and as the place of execution (before the conquest of Turkestan by Russia in 1865, the wives, proved of being unfaithful were dropped in bags off the parapet down to stone yard).
In 1868 and 1886 during strong earthquake in Tashkent, the top of the entrance peshtak collapsed down to arch cushions. Restoration of the portal arch, capital research and restoration works were carried out in 1930-1960s by the Soviet restorers.
Kukeldash Madrasah is one of the largest madrasahs to remain intact in 16th century in the Central Asia. The monument is elevated on a high pedestal, emerged on the ancient cultural layers. Its plan is traditional - a rectangular courtyard with khujras, stately decorated front facade with high portal, arches and minarets covering the corners. The lobby had elbowed passages, rectangular courtyard with a large number of khujras (living cells of madrasah students) located in one, two-storey, the entrances to which were decorated by arches.
To the north-east of Kukeldash there are the remains of the monument of earlier time, the construction of which is connected with the name of Khodja Akhrar. This is the Jami Mosque.